The more I listen to, discuss, study, and worship through the beautiful God-given art that is music, the less tolerance I have for things that lack passion, myself included. The angry, harsh screams of the metal genre channel a rage that’s pointed and freeing; the sad, whiny cries of the emo genre lament about sorrows that are relatable and tangible; the expressive, artistic poetry of the hip-hop/rap genre offers a window into a subculture foreign to me. These expressions are born from passion, from suffering, from hardship—not unlike many of David’s psalms or Job’s replies to those around him. Of course, these whole genres are not to be praised but rather the artists that represent those genres well (check out Oh, Sleeper​, Real Friends​, and Kendrick Lamar​).
     When looking at any art form or cultural expression, the temptation is always to throw the baby out with the bathwater, especially for evangelicals. Yes, a lot of metal is empty and stupid, a lot of emo music is laughable and melodramatic, and a lot of rap is deplorable and repetitive. But not all of it. And this is true of more than just whole genres, but artists themselves.
     I’ve found that (almost) any song or movie or book is redeemable if you’re willing to get past language that you’re uncomfortable with and embrace subject matter that won’t be found on Disney Channel. Look beyond Drake​’s radio singles that praise money and sex and you’ll hear him sing, “Time after time after time, money’s all I get and there’s still money on my mind but I ain’t ever satisfied” on Future’s ‘Never Satisfied,’ or beyond Bring Me the Horizon’s very explicit, anti-religious lyrics and you’ll find a man searching for something and someone more on their song ‘Drown’: “Who will fix me now? Save me from myself, don’t let me drown.” Both of these ‘secular’ artists make very biblical points: all the money in the world won’t satisfy you and no man can fix or save you.
     This approach to music is not merely for personal enjoyment, it comes with evangelistic intent, too. When unbelievers see us damning Katy Perry’s music on the basis of being ‘non-Christian’ or perhaps overly sexual, they don’t focus on that, they see us rejecting a person and the good art that they make. Again, yes, we should recognize that the content isn’t praiseworthy, but without communicating that Katy Perry is beyond the grace of God or that the pop music she gives to the world is not as great and catchy as it is (even if you hate radio pop). Moreover, if we can show the world that Christians in fact celebrate people, good art, and God-given truth regardless of where it’s found or who it comes from, then we represent the Lord well and we shatter misconceptions of what the Lord is doing in this world.
     Refuse to settle for surface-level art forms and dispassionate musicians, directors, and authors. We have so much to learn from different people of foreign backgrounds and far away cultures with new insights into life, the Lord, and the human condition. Great music, great cinema, and great literature should be celebrated as great gifts from the Lord.


     Modesty: such a traditional, culturally backwards, unpopular concept. It’s hard to reconcile modesty with a culture in which every girl has accepted bikinis as the norm, in which you can put a sticker over a woman’s nipple and then broadcast it on primetime television, in which pornography is no longer universally damned, on and on I could go. And this is just the culture at large, I’m not even dealing with the culture of the Church, though you’d have a hard time distinguishing the two at times.
     Before I tell you my personal convictions on modesty, I’ll acknowledge a few things. For one, modesty is totally relative to a culture: some cultures consider burqas (those full-coverings that Muslim women wear) as the standard dress, some cultures wold consider one-piece bathing suits scandalous, some cultures have no problem with bikinis, etc. Second, this isn’t a blog devoted to creating hatred for bikinis. Or yoga pants. Or tank tops, spaghetti straps, V-necks, low-rise jeans, or any of that. Those have been condemned items of clothing in years past, maybe topless bikinis will be the hot topic a few years down the road, I don’t know, and I don’t care. I’m writing about people, motives, hearts, and temptations, the clothing choices are just the product of those convictions.
     I wanna have sex when I’m looking at girls’ bare or nearly bare bodies. Believe it or not I thought hard about how to phrase that, I thought about sanitizing it because that’s “inappropriate” to express to some ears, I thought about awkward and vague phrases like “I lust when I’m looking at…”, but none would be as honest and clear as that. It’s a fact, my sinful and biological response to looking at the beautiful female body (and it is beautiful, there’s nothing to be shamed about the human body in and of itself) is to send signals in my brain to alert my sex drive.
     Mind you, I said sinful and biological. It’s both. I am responsible for the lustful thoughts my heart has, and I am designed by the Lord to be excited at the sight of the beauty that is a woman’s body. As a Christian, this is difficult to reconcile. I definitely “stumble” (as Paul would say in his letter to the Corinthians) when I see a girl in revealing clothing, all the more so a Christian because not only does my lustful heart begin lighting up but I grow frustrated at this girl for representing the Lord poorly and then I grow frustrated with myself for responding how I am. It’s a mess of blame shifting and frustration and lust, and the culture of our church is not one in which I could walk up and ask her to wear something that leaves less to the imagination. “Well this is what I want to wear,” or “Maybe you should control your own damn thoughts,” or “You’re shaming me for my body…”
     I would never want my wife, daughter, girlfriend, mother, sister, whatever, to wear much of what passes for the norm for beachwear, summer wear, tight clothing, etc. I’ll admit, back to my original statement, that my flesh wants to have sex when I’m looking at girls’ bare or nearly bare bodies; but my spirit, the true me, the me that’s been redeemed and cleansed in Jesus Christ, really wants to make love to the woman who’s heart has captured mine. I want to enter a covenant with the girl in jeans and a T-shirt who says much about the Lord with her life than the girl who says much about herself with her body.
     Yes, the very idea of modesty is an assault on the highest of American ideals: individuality and freedom of expression. But I plead with you, women, set aside those ideals for the virtues that Christ calls you to. Not because you’re weak-willed but precisely the opposite, because you’re stronger than the women who entice men with the beauty of their bodies and not the beauty of their hearts. Do it because I am extremely weak and so are my stupid brothers. And please, tell me what bothers you about what we stupidly do, because I know that modesty isn’t a one-sided issue. But don’t ignore my words simply because I have a plank in my eye. Let’s help one another remove those planks.

     Modesty is a respectable manner of adorning one’s body and carrying oneself, born out of a freedom from a worldly definition of beauty and worth, and motivated by a hatred of sin and a desire to draw attention to God.
     When it comes to the subject of modest clothing, the first question we should ask ourselves is: What am I trying to accomplish by what I wear?
1. Modesty is not anti-pretty.
2. Modesty is about who you worship.
3. Modesty is about behavior and attitude, not just clothing.
4. Modesty shows sensitivity to sin.
5. Modesty involves cultural discretion.
6. Modesty is about true freedom, not repression.”

     “Although Paul is talking about food in this passage [Romans 14] rather than dress, he is illustrating a broader principle: We do some things not because we are required, but purely for the sake of others. He says that all food is clean, but that it is better not to eat meat or drink or wine or to do anything that will cause your brother or sister to fall. This is a difficult principle for Westerners to accept, especially Americans, who value personal liberty seemingly above all else. Paul reminds us that, as all of Scripture does, that in all that we do, we have an obligation not only to ourselves but to others as well.
     This message has obvious intersection with modesty. Our bodies are not sinful or problematic—they are created by God and are beautiful things. Still, for many people, the bodies of others are tempting and cause them to think about that person in an objectified, sexualized light. This is surely more the fault of the one doing the lusting than anyone else, and to say anything else—anything along the lines of “she was asking for it”—is utterly repulsive. It is a fact of human existence from its very inception: People lust after one another sexually.
     We’re presented with a quandary—bodies are beautiful, and yet they often cause us to think and act in sinful ways, so what do we do? In our polarized culture, we tend to choose one extreme or the other, either to curse the body as sinful or to view those who lust as morally deficient and exclusively at fault.
     According to Paul, there is another path: We do whatever we can to prevent other beloved brothers or sisters from being stumbled. Modesty then is not a rejection of the beauty of body, nor is it a judgment on the moral weakness of others—it is the loving prerogative of the strong.
     Do we “have” to dress in a certain way? No, not at all, and the tone of Paul’s writing makes this clear. The problem is that we too often have made modesty a compulsory action. Instead, though, modest dress is something we consciously do for others, not because we are forced to, but because we want to; not because we are weaker than others, but because we are stronger; not out of our hatred for ourselves, but our love for another.
     I believe that women should dress modestly. Why, because they have to? Because they’re asking for it if they don’t? Because their bodies are not godly things? No, not at all. They should dress modestly because they love and value men.
     You see, in the sinful weakness of the male spirit, men often see the beauty of the female form and transform it into something base and soulless. It happens even to the best of us, who were raised well, who love Christ with all of our hearts. It is sin, and it is weakness, and separates us from God and women. I make no excuse for it in my own life, and I certainly do not blame women for something that I myself am responsible for.”

     “Modesty takes in to account the heart, the situation, and the culture. Modesty is a virtue that shows love to others and brings glory to God through appropriate dress.”
     – Tim Challies, Modesty Matters: The Heart of Modesty

     – Kevin DeYoung, The Lost Virtue of Modesty
     – GotQuestions, What Does It Mean to Dress Modestly?
     – GotQuestions, Should a Christian Woman Wear a Bikini?
     – GotQuestions, Should Christian Women Wear Pants?

     “Whatever is born is the work of God. Whatever, then, is plastered on (that), is the devil’s work.”
     – Tertullian

     “In 1 Timothy 2:9-10, the apostle Paul writes “I also want the women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, adorning themselves not with elaborate hairstyles or gold or pearls or expensive clothes, but with good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship God.” The Greek word translated “modesty” here is kosmios. Derived from kosmos (the universe), it signifies orderliness, self-control and appropriateness. It appears only twice in the New Testament, and interestingly, its second usage refers specifically to men (1 Timothy 3:2). In fact, nearly all of the Bible’s instructions regarding modest clothing refer not to sexuality, but rather materialism (Isaiah 3:16-23, 1 Timothy 2:9-12, 1 Peter 3:3). Writers in both the Old Testament and New Testament express grave concern when the people of God flaunt their wealth by buying expensive clothes and jewelry while many of their neighbors suffered in poverty. (Ironically, I’ve heard dozens of sermons about keeping my legs and my cleavage out of sight, but not one about ensuring my jewelry was not acquired through unjust or exploitive trade practices—which would be much more in keeping with biblical teachings on modesty.)
     And so biblical modesty isn’t about managing the sexual impulses of other people; it’s about cultivating humility, propriety and deference within ourselves.
     With this in mind, there are three extremes those of us who value modesty should take care to avoid:
1. We turn modesty into objectification when we hold women responsible for the thoughts and actions of men.
     It is important here to make a distinction between attraction and lust. Attraction is a natural biological response to beauty; lust obsesses on that attraction until it grows into a sense of ownership, a drive to conquer and claim. When Jesus warns that “everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart,” he uses the same word found in the Ten Commandments to refer to a person who “covets” his neighbor’s property. Lust takes attraction and turns it into the coveting of a woman’s body as though it were property. And men are responsible for their own thoughts and actions when this happens; they don’t get to blame it on what a woman is wearing.
     Notice Jesus doesn’t say, “everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart, so ladies, be sure to dress more modestly.” Instead he says to the men, “if your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away”! The IVP New Testament Commentary notes that at the time, “Jewish men expected married Jewish women to wear head coverings to prevent lust. Jewish writers often warned of women as dangerous because they could invite lust (as in Sirach 25:21; Ps. Sol. 16:7-8), but Jesus placed the responsibility for lust on the person doing the lusting.”
     People have expressed skepticism of the Princeton study cited by Rey, pointing out that it was drawn from a small sample size, included men who already held negative or sexist views of women, and used headless images of women either fully dressed or wearing a bikini to evoke responses. But regardless of whatever synapsis involuntarily fire in a man’s brain when he sees a woman’s body, he alone is responsible for the decision to objectify a woman or treat her with respect. Placing that burden upon women is unnecessary and unfair.
     2. We turn modesty into objectification when we assume there are single standards that apply to all people in all cultures.
     Interestingly, the same study cited by Rey has been cited by a popular Muslim site as support for encouraging women to wear the hijab, which reveals something of how different cultures and faiths view modesty. I spent some time in India, where women in traditional saris exposed their midriffs and navels without a second thought, but would carefully avoid showing their knees. Rachel Marie Stone recently wrote an excellent piece for Christianity Today about how, in Malawi, women typically nurse in public without shame of exposing their breasts. In many cultures, a one-piece bathing suit would be considered scandalous; in others, bikinis—or even topless bathing— are the norm. What is considered modest or appropriate changes depending on culture and context. It also changes from woman to woman, depending on body type, personality, personal convictions and season in life. While we may long for a universal dress code that would make all of this simpler, we aren’t given one. Perhaps this is why Paul encouraged women to “adorn themselves with good deeds,” and why the valorous woman of Proverbs 31 is praised because “she clothes herself in strength and dignity.” At the end of the day, the most important things we project to the world are strength, dignity and good deeds; the sort of things that transcend culture, circumstance, and clothing.
     The truth is, a man can choose to objectify a woman whether she’s wearing a bikini or a burqa [a long, loose garment covering the whole body from head to feet, worn in public by many Muslim women]. We don’t stop lust by covering up the female form; we stop lust by teaching men to treat women as human beings worthy of respect.
3. Finally, we turn modesty into objectification when we make women ashamed of their bodies.
     It doesn’t take long for a woman to realize that no matter what she wears, the curves of her body remain visible and will occasionally attract the notice of men. If this reality is met only with shame, if the female form is treated as inherently seductive and problematic, then women will inevitably feel ashamed of their bodies.
     But our bodies are not something to be overcome; they are not dirty or shameful or inherently tempting. They are a beautiful part of what it means to be created in the image of God. These are the bodies that allow us to be the hands and feet of Jesus in the world, the bodies that feel sun on our skin and sand between our toes, the bodies that nurse babies and cry with friends, the bodies that emerge from the waters of baptism and feast on the bread of communion. They are beautiful, and they are good.
     So my advice for women looking for bathing suits this season is this: Don’t dress for men, and don’t dress for yourself. Instead, prioritize strength, dignity and good deeds, and then dress accordingly.”

     “[song playing: “Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini”] I’m sure you’ve all heard that song before and I apologize if it gets stuck in anyone’s head for the rest of the day. But, I am wondering, if you’ve ever really listened to the lyrics, because until a couple of weeks ago, I’d never really listened to them before, so I’d like to review some of them with you. The first verse goes,
     “She was afraid to come out of the locker // She was as nervous as she could be // She was afraid to come out of the locker // She was afraid that somebody would see”
     The song continues, with her being afraid to come out in the open, so she hides in her blanket, and then, she was afraid to come out of the water, so she starts to turn blue. Why was this woman, so afraid? This song was released in 1960, fourteen years after the bikini was invented in France. French engineer, Louis Reard invented the bikini, he worked in his mother’s lingerie shop and he named it after the site of the atomic bomb testing that year Bikini Atoll.
     He thought that the publics’ reaction would be like an atomic bomb explosion. And, he was right. His design was based on exposing the belly button for the first time. And he said, it wasn’t the true bikini unless it could be pulled through a wedding ring. It was so scandalous that no French model would wear it. So he had to hire a stripper to debut his bikini.
     Before Reard invented the bikini women wore one piece swimsuits, like this, or if they were two piece swimsuits, they were still very modest, exposed very little midriff and always cover the belly button. Before that, at the turn of the century women wore this voluminous bathing costumes, and they use things called bath machines, which were like a 6x6x6 wooden or canvas hut on wheels, the women would get inside of the bathing machine in her cloths, and then she would change into her bathing costume. And horses or sometimes people would drag the bathing machine down to the shoreline, and then women would get straight into the water. So that no one would see here in her bathing costume.
     We have certainly come a long way, since then from practically wearing a house of 36 square feet to wearing about 36 square inches of fabric. You go to the beach today and it seems like everyone is wearing a bikini, but it was not an instant hit in the United States. It was seen as a suspect garment favored by licentious Mediterranean types.
     In 1957, Modern Girl magazine said, “It was hardly necessary to waste words on the so called bikini, because no girl with the tact or decency would ever wear such a thing. And one writer described the bikini as a two piece bathing suits that revealed everything about a girl except her mothers’ maiden name. Guards at the beach would measure bathing suits and women wearing bikinis were sure to get kicked off of the beach.
     So, it’s no wonder that the girl on the song was afraid to come out of the water.
     With 1960s however, came the sexual revolution and the women’s movement and the rising popularity of the bikini. Soon no one was afraid to wear one. And in 1965, a women told Time magazine, that it was almost square not to. Last year alone annual spending on the bikini totaled $8 billion. The popularity of the bikini has been attributed to the power of women, not the power of fashion. And a New York Times reporter called the bikini, the millennial equivalent of the power suit.
     So I’d like to take a couple of minutes to examine this so called power that wearing the bikini brings.
     A few years ago, male college students at Princeton University participated in studies of how the male brain reacts to seeing people in different amounts of clothing. Brain scans revealed that when men are shown pictures of scantily-clad women, the region of the brain associated with tools, such as screwdrivers and hammers lit up.
     Some men showed zero brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, which is the part of the brain that lights up when one ponders another person’s thoughts, feelings, and intentions. Researchers found that shocking, because they almost never see this part of the brain shutdown in this way.
     And a Princeton professor said, “It is as if they’re reacting to these women as if they’re not fully human. It’s consistent with the idea that they are responding to these photographs, as if they were responding to objects, not people.
     In a separate Princeton study, when men viewed images a women in bikinis, they often associated with first person action verbs such as: “I push”, “I grab”, “I handle”. But when they saw images of women dressed modestly, they associated them with third person action verbs, such as “she pushes”, “she grabs”.
     Analyst at the National Geographic concluded the bikinis really do inspire man to see women as objects as something to be used rather than someone to connect with. So, it seems that wearing a bikini does give a women power, the power to shutdown a man’s ability to see her as a person, but rather as an object.
     This is surely not the kind of power that women were searching for, the power to be treated as an equal to be seen as in control and to be taken seriously. It seems that the kind of power they are searching for is more attainable, when they dress modestly. But now comes the problem of modesty.
     The very word, modesty is often met with such disdain especially among the younger high school crowd. I remember speaking to a group of teenagers in New York and when I mentioned modesty, this girl yelled from the back, “What am I supposed to dress like then, a grandma? And I was scared, but I have to admit, I thought the same thing when I first learned about modesty. I thought it meant, “I had to be frumpy and dumpy and out of fashion”. And, I imagine myself wearing dresses like this, sitting alone in my living room, never going on another date, ever again and never getting married, and I was particularly frustrated when shopping for a swimsuit, when I decided not to wear bikinis anymore, because all I could find were things that my grandmother would actually wear.
     Instead of being discouraged I took matters into my own hands and I designed my own swimsuit, and the first time I wore it, a few girls asked, where I got it, and the second time a few more and so on and so forth. So, I decided to put my MBA to use, which made my parents so happy, and just start my own swimsuit company.
     My goal is to disapprove the age old notion, that when it comes to swimsuits, less is more and that you can dress modestly without sacrificing fashion.
     My inspiration for my swimsuit line is Audrey Hepburn, who is timeless and classy and who happened to have dressed very modestly. I don’t think people would think of Audrey Hepburn and think frumpy and dumpy and out of fashion.
     These are some of my designs and my tag line is “Who says it has to be itsy bitsy?” Well to answer the question, if you look at today’s society everyone, everyone says, “It has to be itsy bitsy”, fashion designers, the media, and let’s face it sometimes parents.
     Little girls would not be running around in sexy underwear and skimpy bikinis, if it wasn’t for their parents buying them for them.
     I believe that the woman was afraid to come out of the water, because she had a natural sense of modesty about her. That has been stripped away by today’s culture. And, we need to bring it back.
     I have dedicated a lot of my time, I travel all over the country speaking to girls about this issue. I’ve just written a book called ‘Decent Exposure’ about it.
     And, we need to teach girls that modesty isn’t about covering up our bodies because they’re bad, modesty isn’t about hiding ourselves, it’s about revealing our dignity.
     We were made beautiful in His image and likeness, so the question I’d like to leave you with is, how will you use your beauty? Thank you. [see Rey’s swimline here:]”
     – Jessica Rey, The Evolution of the Swimsuit

The Gift of Singleness // Celibacy

     Now as a concession, not a command, I say this. I wish that all were as I myself am. But each has his own gift from God, one of one kind and one of another. To the unmarried and the widows I say that it is good for them to remain single as I am. But if they cannot exercise self-control, they should marry. For it is better to marry than to be aflame with passion.
      Now concerning the betrothed, I have no command from the Lord, but I give my judgment as one who by the Lord’s mercy is trustworthy. I think that in view of the present distress it is good for a person to remain as he is. Are you bound to a wife? Do not seek to be free. Are you free from a wife? Do not seek a wife. But if you do marry, you have not sinned, and if a betrothed woman marries, she has not sinned. Yet those who marry will have worldly troubles, and I would spare you that.This is what I mean, brothers: the appointed time has grown very short. From now on, let those who have wives live as though they had none, and those who mourn as though they were not mourning, and those who rejoice as though they were not rejoicing, and those who buy as though they had no goods, and those who deal with the world as though they had no dealings with it. For the present form of this world is passing away.
     I want you to be free from anxieties. The unmarried man is anxious about the things of the Lord, how to please the Lord. But the married man is anxious about worldly things, how to please his wife, and his interests are divided. And the unmarried or betrothed woman is anxious about the things of the Lord, how to be holy in body and spirit. But the married woman is anxious about worldly things, how to please her husband. I say this for your own benefit, not to lay any restraint upon you, but to promote good order and to secure your undivided devotion to the Lord.
     – Paul, 1 Corinthians 7:6-9, 25-35

On the balance of marriage and singleness:
     We must never exalt singleness (as some early church fathers did, notably Tertullian) as if it were a higher and holier vocation than marriage. We must reject the ascetic tradition which disparages sex as legalized lust, and marriage as legalized fornication. No, no. Sex is the good gift of a good Creator, and marriage is his own institution.
     If marriage is good, singleness is also good. It’s an example of the balance of Scripture that, although Genesis 2:18 indicates that it is good to marry, 1 Corinthians 7:1 (in answer to a question posed by the Corinthians) says that “it is good for a man not to marry.” So both the married and the single states are “good”; neither is in itself better or worse than the other.
Reasons people remain single:
     I doubt if we could find a clearer answer to this than in the recorded teaching of Jesus himself in Matthew 19:11-12. He was talking about “eunuchs,” meaning people who remain single and celibate. He listed three reasons why people do not marry.
     First, for some it is “because they were born that way.” This could include those with a physical defect or with a homosexual orientation. Such are congenitally unlikely to marry.
     Second, there are those who “were made that way by men.” This would include victims of the horrible ancient practice of forcible castration. But it would also include all those today who remain single under any compulsion or external circumstance. One thinks of a daughter who feels under obligation to forego marriage in order to care for her elderly parents.
     Third, “others have renounced marriage because of the kingdom of heaven.” These people, who are under no pressure from within or without, voluntarily put marriage aside, either temporarily or permanently, in order to undertake some work for the kingdom which demands single-minded devotion.
Singleness as a gift from God:
     It’s noteworthy that Jesus himself, before listing those three categories of single people, said that not everybody could accept what he was about to say, “but only those to whom it has been given.” If singleness is a gift, however, so is marriage. Indeed, I have myself found help in 1 Corinthians 7:7. For here the apostle writes: “each man [or woman] has his [or her] own gift from God; one has this gift, another has that.” “Gift” translates charisma, which is a gift of God’s grace (charis). So whether we are single or married, we need to receive our situation from God as his own special grace-gift to us.
On Stott’s own experience as a single:
     In spite of rumors to the contrary, I have never taken a solemn vow or heroic decision to remain single! On the contrary, during my 20s and 30s, like most people, I was expecting to marry one day. In fact, during this period I twice began to develop a relationship with a lady who I thought might be God’s choice of life-partner for me. But when the time came to make a decision, I can best explain it by saying that I lacked an assurance from God that he meant me to go forward. So I drew back. And when that had happened twice, I naturally began to believe that God meant me to remain single.
     Looking back, with the benefit of hindsight, I think I know why. I could never have traveled or written as extensively as I have done if I had had the responsibilities of a wife and family.
On loneliness:
     God created us as social beings. Love is the greatest thing in the world. For God is love, and when he made us in his own image, he gave us the capacity to love and to be loved. So we need each other. Yet marriage and family are not the only antidotes to loneliness.
     Some pastors work on their own, isolated from their peers, and in consequence are lonely. But the New Testament plainly envisages that each local church will have a plural oversight. See, for example, Acts 14:23 and Titus 1:5. So in All Souls Church in the heart of London we have always had a team ministry, and we have found it an enormous enrichment. I have also been greatly blessed by Frances Whitehead, my faithful secretary for more than 40 years, and by the “apostolic succession” of my study assistants.
     In addition, single people are wise to develop as many friendships as possible, with people of all ages and both sexes. For example, although I have no children of my own, I have hundreds of adopted nephews and nieces all over the world, who call me “Uncle John.” I cherish these affectionate relationships; they greatly lessen, even if they do not altogether deaden, occasional pangs of loneliness.
Final words of advice for single people:
     First, don’t be in too great a hurry to get married. We human beings do not reach maturity until we are about 25. To marry before this runs the risk of finding yourself at twenty-five married to somebody who was a very different person at the age of twenty. So be patient. Pray daily that God will guide you to your life partner or show you if he wants you to remain single. Second, lead a normal social life. Develop many friendships. Third, if God calls you to singleness, don’t fight it. Remember the key text: “Each person has his or her own gift of God’s grace” (1 Cor. 7:7).”
     – John Stott, John Stott on Singleness

     “Because [Westerners] privilege marriage as God’s preferred way of life for everyone, churches in America, on the whole, do a very poor job of ministering to single adults. Our programs are rarely geared for singles. The few that tend either to isolate them from the rest of the congregation or function as a Christian matchmaking service. We sometimes think that the best discipleship step a single Christian can make is to marry a good Christian mate. In fact, we are often suspicious of a male Christian who chooses singleness. Something is “wrong” with him, and the burden of proof falls to him to prove otherwise. Some churches will not hire a single man as a pastor for fear “that a single pastor cannot counsel a mostly married flock, that he might sow turmoil by flirting with a church member, or that he might be gay” [see link below]. We fail to recognize, as Paul did, that singleness is a gift and that those who choose the celibate lifestyle have greater freedom to serve the Lord. John Stott and Henri Nouwen are just two examples of celibate Christian singles who dedicated their lives to the service of Christ and his kingdom. Spiritual gifting is not reserved for the married. Perhaps instead of focusing all our attention on ministering to the needs of families, we should find more meaningful ways of equipping singles for the work of the Lord.”
     – E. Randolph Richards and Brandon O’Brien, Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes

     – John Morgan III, The Gift of Celibacy—Its Meaning Today
     – Christine Colón, Bonnie Field, Singled Out: Why Celibacy Must Be Reinvented in Today’s Church

Redemptive Redefinition

     For Christians like myself living in an American context, we’re not pushing anything new. By that I mean that we’re not, like Paul, entering local city forums and declaring to pagans “the unknown God” (Acts 17:22-33), nor are we entering local religious centers and reasoning toward the coming Messiah (Acts 18:4; 19:8-10). Rather than sharing a completely new or foreign message with people, evangelism for us will consist of redefining and redeeming people’s conceptions of Christ, Christianity, church, sin, heaven, hell, and so on.
     Westerners are familiar with Christianity in some capacity or another. Ask any stranger on the street, “Who is Jesus Christ?” and they’ll have an answer. “He’s my Lord and Savior,” “He was a good teacher who’s followers went crazy after he died,” “He’s a mythical piece of religious fiction,” etc. The answers would vary widely, but I promise you they’d have an answer. No “Never heard of the guy” or “Who?” responses. This is because most Americans have been raised in church, or have attended a youth camp as a teenager, or have taken a world religions class in college, or have seen crazy Christian extremists on the news, or have studied it out of curiosity, or have been informed by their parents or voices within culture (e.g. TV shows, movies, books, etc.), the list is endless. The people you and I encounter from day-to-day know who Jesus is; at least, they think they do.
     As a result of this, when we approach people and ask, “Hey man, could I have a few minutes of your time to tell you about Jesus Christ?” we’re usually responded to with a negative disposition, if not a negative answer outright. People aren’t interested in something that they’ve already made up their mind about, and although they’d vary widely, the definitions people have for Jesus are pretty set in stone. Beyond this, their definitions of Christians are set, too, and chances are that they’re not very kind assessments. Rather than validating their assumption that Christians are the pushy, “shove-it-down-your-throat” type by forcing conversations like the examples previously mentioned, we should aim to redefine that conception.
     I love Breaking Bad, Guardians of the Galaxy, and any movie or television that makes me think deeply, but Christians shouldn’t watch media with cuss words or sex in them. I love to smoke a good cigar, but Christians shouldn’t smoke because their bodies are to be treated as temples of the Holy Spirit. I love to listen to Drake, Bring Me the Horizon, and any artist that makes good music, but Christians shouldn’t listen to music that doesn’t glorify God. My arms are covered in tattoos, but the Bible says that Christians shouldn’t get tattoos. On and on I could go with things about me (and many other Christians) that contradict the common definition of what a ‘Christian’ is.
     What if all of those “but Christians shouldn’t”s that I just listed aren’t true of Christians? What if Christians are not only free to enjoy good, genuine art but that they should learn to discern the message behind movies and shows that, quote, “have bad words and premarital sex”? What if Paul’s talking about the body of the church as a temple of the Holy Spirit and not the human body? What if music that isn’t written exclusively under the genre “worship/gospel” can glorify God? What if Christ has fulfilled the Mosaic law that previously prohibited Jews from tattooing themselves? Mind you, the point of this article is not to change your convictions on any of those things, start an argument, or make Christians look cooler. I’m just listing a handful of examples that I point to when redefining and redeeming what a Christian is. And people get more than just the definition of a Christian wrong; ‘church’ isn’t a building full of perfect people, ‘heaven’ isn’t the final home for the Christian, ‘sin’ encompasses more than just disobeying God’s commandments, ‘hell’ isn’t a party with all your friends, etc. We have to redefine these things with our lives and words if they’re ever going to realize that.
     When ‘evangelizing’ in this manner, my hope is that in correcting misconceptions about what a Christian is, I’m able to correct misconceptions about who Jesus is. The implication behind each of those “but Christians shouldn’t…” is a poorly misunderstood Jesus who only cares about what we look like and what cuss words we say and what movies we watch, rather than the true Jesus who walks among the poor, addicted, tattooed, sailor-mouthed freaks and commoners with compassion, mercy, and grace. Does Jesus care about what we look like and what we say and what media we consume? Absolutely. But when Jesus is represented as a spiteful tyrant looking to slap people on the wrist for watching rated R movies and drinking a beer, then who can blame people for shunning the annoying evangelist begging for 5 minutes to share the “good news” about said tyrant? He is far more, and far greater.
     You represent Jesus to the people you encounter every day. Their understanding of who He is will be determined by how they understand you. If you’re critical, self-righteous, a buzzkill, and evangelistic in word alone, then Jesus will be perceived as such. But if you’re kind, humble, joyful, and evangelistic in all of your life, then Jesus will be represented as He is. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, but don’t think that means forcing your coworker through the Romans Road or knocking on doors in your neighborhood with a handful of tracts that poorly attempt to make people scared of hell. Redefine and redeem your family’s, friends’, and coworkers’ misconceptions of what a follower of Jesus looks like in the hopes that they’ll be redefined and redeemed by Jesus.

Kendrick Lamar’s “To Pimp a Butterfly” Review


I loved this review of Kendrick Lamar’s newest album so much that I had to post it. I didn’t write this, for the record.

To Pimp A Butterfly [TPAB] is the story of where Kendrick was/is in his life post-good kid m.A.A.d. city [GKMC].

It’s best to view this more as an audiobook than album. You’ll appreciate it more. I’m not being pretentious, just being honest. I would really suggest to those who like the album and what Kendrick’s trying to accomplish here: do not short change this project by comparing it to other hip-hop albums! The beats are providing a backdrop — similiar to a movie score — and should not be your central focus. There’s a reason that there’s little-to-no ‘bars’ (i.e. memorable lines, etc.) on the album: it’s a story, not merely a collection of songs. I’m floored with this concept and him using ‘Pac circa ’94 as inspiration. ‘Pac was leading a movement of hood niggas. Just like Kendrick is on the album cover. He just had to become strong enough to handle the responsibility.

This isn’t just Section.80 2.0, it’s the mission he’s been on since then. Deep shit, man. A literary masterpiece…:

  • Wesley’s Theory : He doesn’t want to be another Wesley Snipes (i.e. snatched up by critical acclaim and fame at an early age). Young Wesley was featured in a Spike Lee film when he was still considered an avant garde director and in Michael fucking Jackson’s first post-Thriller video for Bad directed by Martin Scorsese…that’s pretty famous, pretty fast. Why? What’s the outcome? The government/America/the powers that be — the “Uncle Sam” the woman will get to “fuck you up” referenced later — will come bearing down on you. Just like they did Wesley…
  • King Kunta :  This track begins the thread of self-doubt masked in braggadocio contained throughout the entire album until he reaches self-actualization — “I love myself!” — at the end of the album when he becomes a Negus. Hence the introduction of the poem that tells his state of mind post-GKMC at the end of this song. This track is critical in understanding this album. He’s becoming to realize that he’s a slave to the powers that be and this is his response as a black man. “He’s mad…but he ain’t stressin!” He’s accepted his fate. And what happens when you accept your fate to the powers that be? You become…
  • For Free? :  …and guess who the woman talking is portraying during this piece? That’s right, she’s America/the powers that be. Everything she wants are the things that Kendrick doesn’t want to become. Kendrick’s response? “This dick ain’t free”. He doesn’t play by the machine’s rules. And the response from America/the powers that be is “nigga you ain’t no King!” Hence, the next track…
  • Institutionalized : This song is his justification for why he’s become “institutionalized” — i.e. giving into fame/the powers that be for the sake of his art — and reasons why he will never become institutionalized all the same. Hence Snoop giving the biographical recap of just who Kendrick is. This continues the poem’s (“I remember you were conflicted…”) story. This internal conflict leads to…
  • These Walls :  It’s Kendrick’s confession that he has in fact “made love” with the powers that be and the marriage is one of convenience. This leads to his breakdown. The “I can’t believe myself and who I’m becoming” state of mind that leads to…
  • u :  Kendrick’s self-doubt officially becomes self-loathing. He’s taking himself to the woodshed and doing some real self-reflection. This is probably the most straight-forward message on the album. But, he’s trying to overcome this state of depression and reminds himself that he’s gonna be…
  • Alright :  The beginning of the “pick himself off the mat” state of mind. But, before he can completely overcome his struggles with doubt, denial and depression, he’s faced with his biggest challenge yet…understanding he is in fact…
  • For Sale?   Lucy (or Lucifer)  is enticing Kendrick more than ever by directly letting him know what material possessions the powers that be can provide for him. There’s a reason that this is posed as a question in the title. Kendrick doesn’t know the answer. And to discover the answer, he needs to go home to…
  • Momma : Kendrick goes home to be reminded of what’s most important to him and to begin to gain his confidence back. Hence the constant reminder that “I know everything…” throughout the track. Once he realizes he has the answers, he’s ready to take on this burden of fame, etc.; however, while he’s home, he realizes that things in his hood still aren’t right. He’s made it, but his hood (Compton) is left behind to deal with the perils that come with poverty, being a black man, etc. His homies thinks he’s changed and start playing…
  • Hood Politics :  This song begins with what is one of Kendrick’s OGs making fun of what Kendrick has become and they barely recognize who he is now. And with that, Kendrick begins to “fight back” and his defense mechanism is to remind all of these guys who thinks he’s changed that they are “boo boo”. However, what if they are right? And if so, the question is…
  • How Much A Dollar Cost? : A deep question, and again, no answer is given. But what’s key is that Kendrick’s confidence is beginning to show flashes of its old self. Going back home has Kendrick asking himself the right questions and with the help of the OGs/family/his girl/the Lord, he has a renewed sense of purpose and pride (black pride, to be specific). It’s also important to contextualize the ’94 ‘Pac influence again. ’94 ‘Pac was arguably one of the most known “black” revolutionaries of his time — Farrakhan was still foremost — and it’s clear that Kendrick is beginning to sense the same responsibility to his community. And much like ‘Pac in ‘94, he has the vision and purpose, but no answer…
  • Complexion :  This is what I’d imagine is his ode to black pride and will go down as one of Kendrick’s definitive tracks whenever his career is complete. What is the most powerful moment of this track is the inclusion of a woman, which is fantastic as it reinforces the notion of black women being just as important to black community and culture as the homies that he’s trying to reach. And now, think about the single cover for the next track (a woman breast feeding)…
  • The Blacker The Berry :  This phrase is commonly referred to reinforce black pride in black women and their complexion (remember this song?). Again, an exploration of black pride, but also an acknowledgment and act of consciousness. He now knows that he’s a hypocrite as much of his views conflict with and even oppose one another. This is again another layer of his renewed responsibility to continue to ask tough questions without providing answers. He hopes to get the answer later (this is why the ending is sooooo important)…
  • You Ain’t Got To Lie (Momma Said) :  By going home  (hence the Momma Said in the title)  he discovers purpose, renewed confidence, pride in his community, pride in his race, etc. and now he’s nearly reached the stage of self-actualization: realizing exactly who he is, “you ain’t got to lie to kick my nigga” (i.e. be yourself) and most importantly…love yourself.
  • i :  This is his moment of self-actualization. He’s ready to carry the torch. But again, this comes with a burden. He’s shunning fame/the powers that be and doing things his way (there’s a reason that this was chosen as the initial single. It was this story carried out in real life…he shunned expectations when this single was released last year). However, with this power comes great responsibility. He’s ready to lead. And as with any man looking to lead his people, he has accepted his fate, and he accepts the fact that he is a…
  • Mortal Man :  Kendrick has accepted his responsibility, found his purpose and now (as anyone must do when they assume the mantle), he’s seeking guidance. He knows who he is. But he still doesn’t have the answers. And in seeking to get the answers, he presents ‘Pac with his backstory —the six-part poem — and hopes to get answers and wisdom…who was the ultimate mortal man in hip-hop? Tupac Shakur.

No answers are yet given, but this is the story of how they (America/the powers that be/your own self-doubt) tried to pimp (lose self-identity and self-worth for material gain) a butterfly (a beautiful and now powerful black man).”

— DGIsAWinner, comment section of Review: Kendrick Lamar’s ‘To Pimp a Butterfly’ Is a Dark Album for a Dark Time

First Things First


We cannot overemphasize things of highest importance. But, conversely, we can overemphasize that which is of secondary value, though equally necessary or true. All truth is true (duh), all necessities are necessary (duh), but not all truth and necessities are of equal importance. This should be fairly obvious.

Think Jesus’ emphasis on the Greatest Commandment, “Love God, love people,” or his words to the Pharisees, “Woe to you, hypocrites! For you tithe, yet have neglected the weightier matters of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness. These you ought to have done, without neglecting the others.” Or Paul, “Now faith, hope, and love abide; but the greatest of these is love” and “of first importance: that Christ died for our sins…” Followers of Christ should be known not for nitpicking things of secondary importance, but rather for embodying the love of the crucified Lord of creation. My cynicism aside, this is generally my biggest frustration with Christians on social networking.

Sharing Christ is more important than damning homosexuality or a sin you particularly dislike; worshipping the Lord is more important than singing songs to your musical or theological preference; loving your neighbor is more important than arguing against his political views; identifying with the broken body of Christ is more important than identifying with Texas pride or the Cowboys; living out New Testament ethics is more important than captioning a Bible verse with your selfies and Instagram bio; contributing to the church is more important than complaining that you can’t consume what you’d like from it; damning global injustice is more important than bashing Obama; demonstrating authenticity through weakness is more important than faking the happiness and strength that you don’t always have; celebrating great music and cinema is more important than hiding from anything with the F word in it; being an agent of change is more important than voicing what’s wrong with our generation; and evaluating me based on how I love God and love people is more important than thinking I’m solid because I post a Facebook status you like.

C.S. Lewis writes, “When first things are put first, second things are not suppressed but increased.” We should not neglect things of secondary importance; and I cannot draw a universal line and define what’s of greatest and least value. But, I can echo Christ’s words in the sermon on the Mount: “Seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be added to you.”

“The woman who makes a dog the centre of her life loses, in the end, not only her human usefulness and dignity but even the proper pleasure of dog-keeping.

The man who makes alcohol his chief good loses not only his job but his palate and all power of enjoying the earlier (and only temporary pleasurable) levels of intoxication.

It is a glorious thing to feel for a moment or two that the whole meaning of the universe is summed up in one woman—glorious so long as other duties and pleasures keep tearing you away from her. But, clear the decks and so arrange your life (it is sometimes feasible) that you will have nothing to do but contemplate her, and what happens?

Of course this law has been discovered before, but should stand re-discovered. It may be stated as follows: every preference of a small good to a great, or partial good to a total good, involves the loss of the small or partial good for which the sacrifice is made…You can’t get second things by putting them first. You get second things only by putting first things first.”

– C.S. Lewis, “First and Second Things,” in God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics

My Tattoos

These are all my tattoos and their meanings, in order of when I got them. Click each picture to get a better look. See this post for an understanding of tattoos.


Done by Jeremy Maxfield at Elite Tattoo Gallery in Fort Worth, Texas (July 2013). “Taste and see that the LORD is good,” Psalm 34:8. I just wanted a reminder of God’s constant goodness. Dang, God’s so good.


Done by Cody Dresser at Dallas Tattoo & Arts in Dallas, Texas (November 2013).”Bind my wandering heart to Thee,” a line from my favorite hymn, Come Thou Fount. This tattoo represents my favorite hymn, my love for beautiful art devoted to the Lord (like many classic hymns), and the meaning of the line itself is a plea to the Lord to bind our hearts to Him, as we fickly wander toward sin and worldliness away from that which satisfies.


Done by Cody Dresser at Dallas Tattoo & Arts in Dallas, Texas (March 2014). The crown represents our union with Christ; Paul would call us “ambassadors for Christ” (2 Corinthians 5:20), or viceroys: representatives of an authority not our own. We wear the crown that Christ has earned and purchased with His blood. The castle is a reminder of the holy city, the New Jerusalem, that the Lord is preparing for us (Revelation 21:2), and ultimately a reminder of God’s presence, as God will dwell with us (Revelation 21:3). God’s dwelling with man was once full in the Garden of Eden, broken after the Fall and relegated to the Tabernacle, then the Temple, then the Church, and will finally be fully restored in the new Earth. See T. Desmond Alexander’s From Eden to the New Jerusalem for a better understanding of God’s presence and man’s viceregency. The roses and background are just aesthetic, at the artists’ choice. I love letting the artist freely design his artwork, as he’s likely to design something to the best of his ability when given little limitations. And Cody’s awesome.


Done by Cody Dresser at Dallas Tattoo & Arts in Dallas, Texas (July 2014). There’s a ton of sword imagery all throughout the New Testament, e.g. “fight the good fight of faith” (1 Timothy 6:12), “the sword of the Spirit” (Ephesians 6:17), “He does not bear the sword in vain” (Romans 13:4), “the word of God is sharper than any double-edged sword” (Hebrews 4:12), etc. Thus, several motifs are implied but ultimately the tattoo points to the face that we exercise the authority of the Lord, the same Lord who tells us He came to this world not to bring peace but a sword (Matthew 10:34).


Done by Cody Dresser at Sparrows Tattoo Company in Mansfield, Texas (September 2014). This tattoo is a reminder of God’s bigness, and our obligation to reach the nations. He’s not merely the God of Dallas, or Texas, or the Bible Belt, or America, or even the world, he reigns over all creation. “All nations” is a phrase that occurs some 200+ times in the Bible, most commonly recognized in the Great Commission, “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations,” (Matthew 28:18-20). Thus, we’re called to take the gospel of God’s kingdom to all nations, not just where we’re comfortable or the places with God-fearing churches on every corner. There are soooo many unreached nations, in urgent need of Jesus.

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Done by Cody Dresser at Sparrows Tattoo Company in Mansfield, Texas (November 2014). The tattoo is on a curving part of my forearm so it’s a bit difficult to get a good picture, which is why the photo above is actually two merged together. This tattoo relates to my anxiety, that is, when I’m not trusting the Lord. The words and imagery all come from Matthew 6, part of Jesus’ sermon on the Mount. “Seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things will be added to you,” (Matthew 6:33). When I’m seeking the Lord, I don’t need to worry about money or school or work or whatever; I don’t mean that I neglect diligence and responsibility in those respective areas I may worry about, rather, I trust the Lord with them knowing that He is good and He is in control. Further, Jesus says, “Look at the birds of the air: they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not of more value than they?” (Matthew 6:26). The bird is a reminder that if God’s taking care of mere birds, then He’s got me. “Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven…For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also,” (Matthew 6:20-21). The heart in the lamp is a reminder that if I’m treasuring those things that are bound to fail me, I will reap worry and struggle, but if I’m treasuring the Lord, I will not fret. God’s good, and I’ve got every reason to trust Him and His goodness.

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Done by Cody Dresser at Sparrows Tattoo Company in Mansfield, Texas (December 2014). A chalice or goblet with blood spilling out, most obviously associated with communion (read Matthew 26:26-29). Beyond the more obvious meaning, this tattoo is a reminder to strive for compassion. I serve a God of great and deep compassion, but often I demonstrate much apathy and cynicism rather than a concern for others. Compassion, ‘com-‘ meaning “with” and ‘passion’ meaning “to suffer,” literally means “to suffer with,” and like Christ has suffered with us and drank the cup of wrath that the Father has given Him (Matthew 26:38-39, 42; John 18:11), I want to strive to emulate that compassion daily, suffer with those around me, and to demonstrate love for God and people.

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Done by Cody Dresser at Sparrows Tattoo Company in Mansfield, Texas (December 2014). First tattoo of mine to not yet have a ‘meaning,’ I guess I’m open to suggestions. I just told him to do an arrow, and he did this. Good art looks dope.

Done by Cody Dresser at Sparrows Tattoo Company in Mansfield, Texas (March 2015). In this piece, the snake symbolizes the enemy, the candle symbolizes time. The length of our short life is like that of a burning candle, and satan aims to get a stranglehold on our time in so many different ways, that it wouldn’t be used for the Lord. Ultimately, life is war and time is precious; we cannot waste a second.

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Done by Cody Dresser at Sparrows Tattoo Company in Mansfield, Texas (March 2015). In general, this tattoo is a reminder of wisdom. Chess is historically considered a “wise man’s game,” or associated with nobility and intelligence. Wisdom is a necessity in the Christian life, taking all that we know and sifting through what life throws at us day by day. Moreover, the knight alternates black and white spaces with each move, similar to how we make ‘moves’ throughout life alternating between the head and the heart.


Done by Cody Dresser at Sparrows Tattoo Company in Mansfield, Texas (March 2015). This is Star Lord from Guardians of the Galaxy, I freaking love this movie. My love for studying and enjoying culture manifests itself in good music (Drake, Bring Me the Horizon, etc.), good TV shows (Breaking Bad, Sons of Anarchy, etc.), and good movies, like Guardians of the Galaxy. Good art glorifies God, and I wanted to engrave a reminder of the good gifts that God gives us through good movies, songs, books, shows, on and on I could go.


Done by Joseph Ayala at Saints and Sinners in Carrollton, Texas (April 2015). The verse is Leviticus 19:28, which states: “You shall not make any cuts on your body for the dead or tattoo yourselves: I am the Lord.” I got this because people often quote this verse, ripped of its proper context, mistaking it to forbid Christians from marking their bodies, i.e. tattoos. For one, this verse is written to the Israelites. This is part of the Law, given by God to His chosen people, to obey, yes. And were Jesus never to come and the Lord to never intend a plan of redemption that freed us from the Law and the New Testament never be written and I be born into the country of Israel, then I would be required to obey it. But the New Testament is replete with the fact that Christ came and fulfilled the Law (Matthew 5:17), freed us from it (Romans 7:6), and instituted the New Covenant (Hebrews 9:15). This is a major aspect of the gospel, and far more important than freeing us merely to get tattoos. I got this as a controversial, trolling, tongue-in-cheek way of pointing to the New Covenant, and ultimately to Jesus Christ who came and freed us from the Law. A permanent irony.

ROSE tattoo

Done by Cody Dresser at Sparrows Tattoo Company in Mansfield, Texas (September 2015). This is just a beautiful rose that I got as a filler, a red rose tattoo is a very standard traditional tattoo, so it’s something I’ve always found aesthetically pleasing and it was convenient that the size/shape of the piece filled up the last large chunk of space on my sleeve. I’d been dying to get the last of my arm filled so that my sleeve would be complete but I’d been saving up for an engagement ring, thus I denied my tattoo addiction and told myself I couldn’t spend any money on them. But, my wonderful girlfriend (soon-to-be fianceé) knew this and decided to go behind my back and contact Cody, and after explaining my situation he decided he’d cut her a discount because he knew me (and he was engaged at the time, so he sympathized with why I was saving). Thus this final tattoo was a gift, and it holds a special significance because it reminds me of Lindsey, who’s my beautiful rose. Yeah, it’s cheesy, but that’s love, sorryboutchya. And I’ve got a super dope sleeve now, shout out to Cody Dresser. Check him out!