Eschatology

     – Geoff Ashley, What is Eschatology?
     – Sam Storms, Eschatology articles
     – Five Solas, Eschatology Comparison
     – Blue Letter Bible, Four Views on the Millennium
     – Monergism, Eschatology

Key Passages
– The Seventy Weeks of Daniel — Daniel 9:24-27
– The Olivet Discourse — Matthew 24, Mark 13, Luke 20
– The Coming of Christ — John 5:19-29, Acts 24:15, 1 Thess. 4:13-5:11 and 2 Thessalonians 1:5-10
     – Aaron Orendorff, The Millenium – Major Views

Eschatology
     – Josh Byers, Revelation Views on the End Times

Amillennialism
     Amillennialism (or nunc-millenialism, viz. now-millenialism) teaches that the thousand year reign of Christ mentioned in Revelation 20:1-6 is symbolic of the current church age, rather than a literal future 1000 year reign. It contends that the period described in Revelation 20 was inaugurated (i.e. began) at Christ’s resurrection and will continue until His Second Coming. Amillennialism holds that while Christ’s reign during the millennium is spiritual in nature, at the end of the church age Christ will return in final judgment and establish a permanent physical reign. Also taught by amillennialism is that the binding of Satan in Revelation 20:1-3 has already occurred, and means that “he might not deceive the nations any longer” (Revelation 20:3) by preventing the spread of the gospel.
     The amillennialist believes that the Kingdom of God was inaugurated at Christ’s resurrection (hence the term “inaugurated millennialism”) at which point he gained victory over both Satan and the Curse. Christ is even now reigning (hence the term “nunc-millennialism” — nunc means “now”) at the right hand of the Father over His church. After this present age has ended, Christ will return and immediately usher the church into their eternal state after judging the wicked. The term “amillennialism” is actually a misnomer for it implies that Revelation 20:1-6 is ignored; in fact, the amillennialist’s hermeneutic interprets it (and in fact, much of apocalyptic literature) non-literally.
     – Theopedia, Amillennialism

– Augustine
– Martin Luther
– John Calvin
– Louis Berkhof
– Vos Geerhardus
– G.K. Beale
– J.I. Packer
– Mark Dever
– Justin Taylor
– Shai Linne
– R. Scott Clark
– Kim Riddlebarger
– Monergism

The Questions – Revelation 20:1-8
(1) When is the millennium – past, present and future?
     – The millennium is now, the entire period of time from the Jesus’ first coming to His second.
(2) When will Jesus return – before or after the millennium?
     – Jesus will return after the millennium.
(3) What does the binding of Satan refer to (v. 2)?
     – The binding of Satan refers to the gospel’s worldwide advance.
(4) Is the thousand years a literal period of time (v. 2)?
     – The thousand years is a figurative number indicating a long period of time.
(5) What is the “first resurrection” (v. 4-6)?
     – The first resurrection refers to:
          a. The intermediate (after-death) state of believers.
          b. The spiritual coming to life (i.e. regeneration) of those who believe the gospel.
(6) What is the “second death”?
     – The second death refers to hell.
(7) What and when will the rapture be?
     – The rapture is a public event that takes place at Christ’s second coming when believers who are still living are “caught up” and transformed.
(8) What will the world be like until Christ returns?
     – Both evil and good will increase side-by-side until Christ returns.
          – Aaron Orendorff, The Millenium – Major Views

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     – Reformation Theology, An Amillenial Eschatology Chart

     – Shai Linne, The Millenium
     – Kevin DeYoung, Making Sense of the Millennium: Part 1Part 2
     – GotQuestions, What is Amillenialism?
     – Monergism, Amillenialism
     – Reformed Forum, Amillenialism

Premillenialism
     Historical premillennialists place the return of Christ just before the millennium and just after a time of great apostasy and tribulation. After the millennium, Satan will be loosed and Gog and Magog will rise against the kingdom of God; this will be immediately followed by the final judgment. While similar in some respects to the dispensational variety (in that they hold to Christ’s return being previous the establishment of a thousand-year earthly reign), historical premillennialism differs in significant ways (notably in their method of interpreting Scripture).
     Dispensational premillennialists hold that Christ will come before a seven-year period of intense tribulation to take His church (living and dead) into heaven. After this period of fulfillment of divine wrath, He shall then return to rule from a holy city (i.e., the New Jerusalem) over the earthly nations for one thousand years. After these thousand years, Satan, who was bound up during Christ’s earthly reign, will be loosed to deceive the nations, gather an army of the deceived, and take up to battle against the Lord. This battle will end in both the judgment of the wicked and Satan and the entrance into the eternal state of glory by the righteous. This view is called premillenialism because it places the return of Christ before the millennium and it is called dispensational because it is founded in the doctrines of dispensationalism.
     – Theopedia, Pre-millenialism

– Early church fathers (historical)
– C.H. Spurgeon (historical)
– John Piper (historical)
– D.A. Carson
– GotQuestions
– J. Dwight Pentecost (dispensational)
– Charles Ryrie (dispensational)
– Norman Geisler (dispensational)
– John MacArthur (dispensational)

The Questions – Revelation 20:1-8 // Premillennialism (Historic or Classic)
(1) When is the millennium – past, present and future?
     – The millennium is future.
(2) When will Jesus return – before or after the millennium?
     – Jesus will return before the millennium.
(3) What does the binding of Satan refer to (v. 2)?
     – The binding of Satan refers to his power and presence being completely removed from the earth.
(4) Is the thousand years a literal period of time (v. 2)?
     – The thousand years may be literal or it may be figurative.
(5) What is the “first resurrection” (v. 4-6)?
     – The first resurrection refers to the physical resurrection of all the “dead in Christ” when he returns.
(6) What is the “second death”?
     – The second death refers to hell.
(7) What and when will the rapture be?
     – The rapture is a public event that takes place at Christ’s second coming when believers who are still living are “caught up” and transformed.
(8) What will the world be like until Christ returns?
     – Evil will increase until Christ returns.
          – Aaron Orendorff, The Millenium – Major Views

The Questions – Revelation 20:1-8 // Premillennialism (Dispensational)
(1) When is the millennium – past, present and future?
     – The millennium is a future time when God will literally fulfill his OT promises to national Israel.
(2) When will Jesus return – before or after the millennium?
     – Jesus will return once at the rapture (secretly) and again before the millennium (publically).
(3) What does the binding of Satan refer to (v. 2)?
     – The binding of Satan refers to his power and presence being completely removed from the earth.
(4) Is the thousand years a literal period of time (v. 2)?
     – The thousand years is a literal period of time.
(5) What is the “first resurrection” (v. 4-6)?
     – The first resurrection refers to the physical resurrection of Christian martyrs and OT saints.
(6) What is the “second death”?
     – The second death refers to hell.
(7) What and when will the rapture be?
     –  The rapture is a secret event that takes place at Christ’s first second coming when the church is silently removed from the earth:
          a. Pre-tribulation
          b. Mid-tribulation
          c. Post-tribulation
(8) What will the world be like until Christ returns?
     – Evil will increase until the great tribulation begins – a seven year period of satanic dominance.
          – Aaron Orendorff, The Millenium – Major Views

     – Sam Storms, Problems with Pre-millenialism
     – Charles E. Hill, Why the Early Church Rejected Premillenialism
     – GotQuestions What is Pre-millenialism?
     – Monergism, Historic Premillenialism
     – Monergism, Dispensational Premillenialism

Post-millenialism
     The postmillennialist believes that the millennium is an era (not a literal thousand years) during which Christ will reign over the earth, not from an literal and earthly throne, but through the gradual increase of the Gospel and its power to change lives. After this gradual Christianization of the world, Christ will return and immediately usher the church into their eternal state after judging the wicked. This is called postmillennialism because, by its view, Christ will return after the millennium.
     – Theopedia, Post-millenialism

– Jonathan Edwards
– R.C. Sproul (maybe)
– Greg Bahnsen
– Keith Mathison
– Doug Wilson

The Questions – Revelation 20:1-8
(1) When is the millennium – past, present and future?
     – The millennium is future – a period of worldwide Christian triumph when the Kingdom of God is dramatically unveiled in history.
(2) When will Jesus return – before or after the millennium?
     – Jesus will return after the millennium.
(3) What does the binding of Satan refer to (v. 2)?
     – The binding of Satan refers both to the gospel’s worldwide advance as well as a sever limiting of his power – both spiritually and physically.
(4) Is the thousand years a literal period of time (v. 2)?
     – The thousand years is a figurative number indicating a long period of time.
(5) What is the “first resurrection” (v. 4-6)?
     – The first resurrection refers to:
          a. The intermediate (after-death) state of believers.
          b. The spiritual coming to life (i.e. regeneration) of those who believe the gospel.
(6) What is the “second death”?
     – The second death refers to hell.
(7) What and when will the rapture be?
     – The rapture is a public event that takes place at Christ’s second coming when believers who are still living are “caught up” and transformed.
(8) What will the world be like until Christ returns?
     – Good will triumph over evil as the millennium approaches and continues.
          – Aaron Orendorff, The Millenium – Major Views

     – GotQuestions, What is Post-millenialism? (GotQuestions)
     – Monergism, Post-millenialism